By Mike Smith 27 March 2011
Following the P.W. Botha’s disastrous Rubicon Speech, the USA passed the Comprehensive Anti Apartheid Act or (CAAA). (passed by the Senate 78 to 21, the House by 313 to 83)
It was the last straw. The isolation of and sanctions against South Africa were the worst that any country in the world had endured up until that time. It was total it was complete. No more Mr. Nice Guy…no more carrot, only stick.
President Ronald Reagan tried to veto the CAAA, but congress would have nothing of it. This override marked the first time in the twentieth century that a president had a foreign policy veto overridden.
There would be amongst other things a ban on all loans to South Africa, even to black owned charities and companies. A ban on all exports to South Africa including fuel, crude oil, weapons, technology such as computers and services to the police and army. A ban on all imports from SA such as steel coal, arms, farm products uranium, textiles. There was a permanent ban on the import of Kruger Rands. South African Airways planes could not land anywhere in the USA anymore…And to drive the message home…Congress approved a $40 million “Assistance to those harmed by Apartheid” donation…Which meant more money from the the West to aid the Marxist terrorist ANC, SACP and PAC.
The act also required that a report from the president be made every twelve months. If “Substantial progress” was not made…more sanctions would follow. Including the seizing of deposit accounts of South African citizens abroad.
These sanctions could only be lifted under five conditions.
1. The release of Nelson Mandela and all so called “Political Prisoners”…read Marxist terrorists, Communist agitators, bomb planters, saboteurs and mass murderers who caused atrocities against the all the citizens of South Africa including blacks, coloureds, whites and everyone inbetween.
2. The repeal of the State of Emergency and the release of all persons detained under it.
3. The unbanning of “Democratic political parties” and the permission of free political process.
4. The repeal of the Group Areas Act and the Population Reggistration Act.
5. Agreement “To enter into good faith negotiations with truly representative members of the black majority without preconditions”.
Not only did the NP government experience pressure from the entire world instituting severe sanctions, sports and cultural boycotts against it, it also experienced pressure from big business inside South Africa.
Shortly after the Rubicon speech, in September 1985, Gavin Relly of Anglo American led a delegation to Lusaka to have talks with the ANC greatly enhancing the status and international standing of the banned terrorist organization…classed by the CIA at the time as one of the ten most dangerous terrorist organizations in the world.
Mike Rosholt of the gigantic Barlows group in October 1985 went chest to chest with P.W. Botha. P.W. previously told business leaders that they “should stick to business and leave politics to the politicians”.
Rosholt made it clear to P.W. Botha that in South Africa there was no longer any clear distinction between political and socio-economic issues. They were inextricably linked.
In 1987 Chris Ball of Barclays bank financially assisted the ANC by placing an advertisement in several English newspapers on the organization`s 75th birthday. They also made loans to the ANC. P.W. Botha ordered an inquiry and charged Chris Ball. Justice Munnik of the Cape Supreme Court found that, despite his denials to the contrary, Chris Ball was fully informed beforehand what these loans would be for. Ball resigned and emigrated to the UK. So did Tony Bloom of the Premier Group and Gordon Waddell, CEO of Anglo-Vaal and former son in law of Harry Oppenheimer, owner of Anglo American who was also the greatest shareholder in Barclays Bank.
Harry Oppenheimer maintained that he had no prior knowledge of or granted approval for the Gordon Relly trip to Lusaka.
It has to be added that before 1994 Anglo American controlled about 80% of all the stock on the Johannesburg stock Exchange. Today, 17 years later, they still control about 80% of all the stock on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
In 1987 Dr Van Zyl Slabbert of the Progressive Federal Party led a delegation of 60 academics and influential whites to talks with the banned ANC in Senegal. This was in total defiance of the NP government.
Inside South Africa society was threatened by another monster, the Introduction of the Maoist “People’s War” and Operation Vula the ANC/SACP. Operation Vula (Vula means open-up in Xhosa) was commanded by Mac Maharaj an Indian Communist. It was the decision of the ANC to shift their focus from 20% Civilian targets to 80% civilian targets.
The result was chaos and brutal mass murder of black citizens accused of disloyalty by the ANC Marxist terrorists. The now famous necklace method was used daily to kill so called informers and terrorize the black population into supporting the ANC. A state of emergency was declared to restore law and order.
Outside of South Africa, on the Angolan Border with Namibia the combined Communist forces of Cuba, The MPLA, East German and Russian military advisers were launching major offensives against UNITA a South African ally, but were thoroughly defeated at the Lomba River or what was later dubbed the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale.
All over the world mass Rock music concerts calling for the freeing of Mandela and the ending of Apartheid.
To make things worse for the National Party, the Right was on the rise. In 1982 another threat arose caused by P.W. Botha himself. The Conservative Party of Dr. Andries Treurnicht was created after the Conservatives in the National Party split off. They were strongly opposed to P.W. Botha’s policies of “Power Sharing” with blacks. They started gaining so much popularity that they became the official opposition on 6th of May 1987 displacing the liberal PFP by gaining 27% of the support. The liberal PFP could only muster 14% of the vote. The NP since they came to power was always on the right of the opposition…
For the first time since 1948 the National Party found themselves, left of the opposition. The NP had 52,3% of the vote.
Nevertheless the NP thought that this gave them a mandate to continue the process of handing power over to the Blacks, because 52,3% and 14% from the PFP as well as the 2% of the New Republican Party basically ensured a two thirds majority on the LEFT of the political spectrum. Their assumption was wrong…criminal in fact.
Nevertheless, not only did South Africa face massive escalations of Communist agitated terrorism and violence threatening civil war from inside the country, but also an amassing of Communist conventional forces and onslaught from outside, but the worst was that Western Capitalist from outside South Africa as well as from inside were financing the Marxist terrorists.
Never in the known history of the white race has the ENTIRE WORLD ganged up against such a tiny nation of five million whites, mostly Christians, such as they did towards the end of twentieth century at the Southern tip of Africa.
In September 1989, when F.W. de Klerk took over from his predecessor P.W. Botha, South Africa was on the ropes. The South African currency had fallen to 36 US cents, compared to $1.40 a decade ago. Unemployment lines were growing daily. Prices in stores were soaring. The inflation rate stood at 16%. At the centre of South Africa’s problems at the time stood a national debt of $20.5 billion Rand.
In October 1989 the American Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, Herman Jay Cohen warned De Klerk that the new Bush administration would institute punitive measures of its own unless South Africa took legislative action before June 1990 to abolish Apartheid.
In 1992 during the Angolan elections, Cohen would declare the elections free and fair despite all other observers disputing this and the evidence of major electoral fraud to the contrary evincing. Shortly after this Cohen resigned and went to work for the Angolan government as a foreign agent and later also worked for the mass murderer Robert Mugabe as a foreign agent.
Nevertheless, after F.W. de Klerk came to power, he was basically given six months to end Apartheid or South Africa would, economically and therefore militarily, be destroyed.
The severity of sanctions against South Africa is contained in three books, namely “In Sight of surrender” by Les de Villiers, “South Africa: The sanctions report”, by The Commonwealth Secretariat and “Race for Sanctions”, by Francis Njubi Nesbitt.
There can be no doubt that these sanctions crippled South Africa. It was hurting to the bone. Later on, De Klerk would consistently deny the impact of sanctions on South Africa, but the truth is rather different. There is however a very good reason for De Klerk’s denial at the time…It will be revealed later.
For now, it is important for us to consider the circumstances of the time, because this was the reality of the situation faced by President F.W. de Klerk and the other NP “Talking Heads” on SABC television such as Barend du Plessis, Pik Botha and Chris Heunis at the time.
It cannot be emphasized any more…by the time de Klerk came to power South Africa was on the ropes, being pummeled and pounded by about 150 other nations across the world. Friends were scarce…We were on our own. The message was clear, “Give the country over to blacks UNCONDITIONALLY or face complete ruin.”